K.O.R.E Technology

Magnetic Overly-efficient Variable Engine Rotary

motor generator magnet magnetic piston



Magnetic Force - Using Permanent Magnets as a Motive Source


This device uses curious fact that magnets do not need to have equal and opposing force to release the magnetic grip between them.

This is demonstrated by the following example; this is an example of concept and not a complete device. Drawings are not to scale. Items are deleted for clarity.

Using two identical electromagnets with non-magnetized metal cores and no current to the pulse coils, there is no action or reaction between them.



Apply a significant current to the bottom pulse coil so it is attracted and held firmly to the metal core of the top electromagnet and can easily support the weight of the bottom electromagnet. The current applied should produce the magnetic properties of the permanent magnets we will use later.



As everyone knows, if we apply an equal current to the two pulse coils, with the two touching poles having the same polarity, they will be violently repelled by the magnetic action of similar poles.

With the uncharged pulse coils orientated so that the touching faces are of like polarity, apply just enough current to the top pulse coil so the magnetic grip between the permanent magnets and the non-magnetize core is released.




The bottom electromagnet falls away.




It is logical to say that one does not have to apply as much energy to the top electromagnet for just the magnetic grip to be released. This is because if we created an equal and opposing field there would be repulsion, not just the release of the magnetic grip. There is a difference between equal and opposing forces; and enough force to release the magnetic grip of two magnets.

Utilizing the difference between the attraction of a permanent magnet to the non-magnetized metal core of an electromagnet - and the energy needed for the release of the magnetic grip does not break the laws of conservation of energy.

If one can capture that difference using permanent magnets, one would obtain increased efficiency directly from the permanent magnets.

Replace the bottom electromagnet with a permanent magnet that has the same magnetic properties as the bottom electromagnet. The permanent magnet is attached with a firm grip to the non-energized metal core of the electromagnet.




Now apply just enough current to release the magnetic grip.





The permanent magnet falls away.





Take a metal core electromagnet in the center and attach a permanent magnet to each end. The permanent magnets are attached to the non-magnetized metal core of the electromagnet. An electromagnet with a permanent magnet on each end is called an Element of this system.


Now we apply just enough current to the pulse coil to neutralize the magnetic grip.



At this point the permanent magnets can be moved to and from the electromagnet easily and the bottom permanent magnet falls away, there is no attraction or repulsion.



This is still not an equal force between the center electromagnet and the exterior permanent magnets, just enough to release the grip. If there were an equal force, there would be a violent repulsion.

Create a gap between the moving magnets and the electromagnets. Place a piece of non-conductive material, such as plastic, between the permanent magnets and the metal core of the electromagnet. The thickness of the plastic should be as small as practical, dependent on tolerance of the parts; the closer the magnets and electromagnets, the stronger the surface field effect.



Measure the current and pulse length needed for the permanent magnet to fall away. This current is the approximate value used to energize the pulse coils with a pulse at the appropriate moment.


Concept: Reciprocating Pistons in a Linear Array:





The permanent magnets are attracted to the metal core of the electromagnets. When the permanent magnets arrive at the point closest to the electromagnets, current is applied to the pulse coils to release the magnetic grip. In a linear reciprocating engine configuration, the magnets are moved by the attraction of the next element in the series. (See Magnetic Force for a more detailed description)


Concept: Parallel Wheel Rotary Configuration:


Configure an appropriate number of elements in circles on two wheels. Construct support for the electromagnets. Put a generator on one or two ends of the shaft. Add a battery and the electrical distribution unit. Attach electrical harness to the coils, the battery and generator.


In this configuration, the basic attraction distance is measured from the side of the magnet.

Using one of the permanent magnets with its face parallel to the face of the non-energized core of the electromagnet, move the permanent magnet towards the edge of the core.






The distance where the attraction force between them becomes noticeable is the basic attraction distance.



In the following drawing, the big circle is a rotating permanent magnet. The little circles are the electromagnet.

While the rotating magnet approaches the electromagnet, the pulse coil is not energized and therefore the permanent magnet is attracted the non-energized metal core of the electromagnet.

When the rotating magnet is approximately centered on the electromagnet, current is applied to the pulse coil to produce a magnetic field strong enough to release the magnetic grip of permanent magnet.

motor generator magnet magnetic piston

The electromagnet may have a some force of the same polarity, the rotating magnet may be repelled and continues in its rotation. There are five areas of interest in magnetic attraction and repulsion; where magnets are attracted to each other, where magnets are repulsed by each other, where there is no attraction or repulsion equal to Q, where there is an attaction to non-energized metal equal to Q+K, where there is a repulsion of Q-K between the objects, One may be able to go as far as Q-K when charging the pulse coils.

The repulsive force of two permanent magnets exists even if there is very little opposing force. It is interesting that when using much smaller magnets with much smaller surface field gauss there is still a fierce opposition to a larger magnet of same polarity. There is very little difference between causing the release of the magnetic grip and creating a very slight repulsive force. It may be that you need very little extra energy to release the grip, plus cause a slight repulsion. You may be able to go as far as the amount needed to charge the pulse coils equal to the magnitude of the attraction of a magnet to metal to gain torque and efficiency.

Brushes and other mechanical connection devices can be used for correct timing. An electronic distribution system can be used to create the exact waveform needed for timing and tuning.

As the permanent magnet moves farther from the electromagnet, less current is needed since the strength of the attraction varies with the distance between them. If timed and tuned properly, the time it takes for the permanent magnets to move out of the attraction field can be the amount of time needed for the residual magnetic force to flush away from the core of the electromagnet.

When the rotating permanent magnets reach the basic attraction distance past the electromagnet the magnetic force of the electromagnet is null.

The energy needed to create enough force in the electromagnet to release the magnetic grip of the permanent magnet is less than the force of the attraction of the permanent magnet to the non-energized metal core of the electromagnet. If the timing can be such that the dissipation of the residue magnetism in the cores matches the retreat of the permanent magnets away from the electromagnet; that would be good.


Concept: Kore - Very Efficient Motor/Generator:


The Kore Rotary Engine is configured in a squirrel cage configuration.

Attach the electromagnets to a support structure in a circular array. Attach the permanent magnets in a circular array to a wheel connected to a shaft. Arrange the permanent magnets so they line up with the electromagnets as elements on the support structure. Combine the electromagnets support structure and the permanent magnets wheel so the permanent magnets and electromagnets form elements lined up properly. The wheel is supported by a shaft supported by bearings or other means.

Arrange an appropriate number of elements in a circle to form a single wheel of elements. This wheel has six elements. The permanent magnets rotate as the wheel rotates and the electromagnets remain in position by their support.

motor generator magnet magnetic piston


When the rotating magnet is approximately centered on the electromagnet, current is applied to the pulse coils to produce a magnetic field strong enough to release the magnetic grip of permanent magnet.

In this configuration, the Basic Attraction Distance is measured from the side of the magnet at the point where noticeable attraction begins. This distance is where, if you are holding a permanent magnet in one hand and a piece of metal in the other, you can feel the attraction beginning to pull them together.

Using the permanent magnets with their faces parallel to the faces of the non-energized core of the electromagnet, rotate the permanent magnets towards the edge of the core on the path of its rotation. When the permanent magnets get to the basic attraction distance, the permanent magnets are attracted to the non-magnetized core of the electromagnet.

When the permanent magnets have been attracted the maximum and are centered or nearly centered to the electromagnets, a pulse of currentis is applied to the coils.

As the permanent magnets move farther from the electromagnet, less current is needed since the strength of the attraction varies with the distance between them. If timed and tuned properly, it may be possible for the time it takes for the permanent magnets to move out of the attraction field can be the amount of time needed for the residual magnetic force to flush away from the core of the electromagnet. When the rotating permanent magnets reach the basic attraction distance past the electromagnet the magnetic force of the electromagnet is null.

The energy needed to create enough force in the electromagnets to release the magnetic grip of the permanent magnet is less than the force of the attraction of the permanent magnets to the non-energized metal cores of the electromagnets.

There may be an advantage to having all the inside permanent magnets as close as they can get. Here is one wheel with eight elements pushed together to the center as close as possible. This creates a very strong magnetic force applied to the shaft.



The effects of this using a metal shaft that has a large magnetic force applied to it may help. Connecting the shaft directly to the ground or positive of the generator through the shaft may be a benefit. One may also be able to construct a magnetic bearing in this configuration.

The effects of creating areas of strong magnetic force may be an advantage by distorting the magnetic fields, giving a better cross section for the electromagnets to attack the fields of the permanent magnets.

Here is a system configured using two wheels with six elements on each wheel attached by a shaft, the electromagnets and permanent magnets in line.






The following isolates the top elements of a four wheel system; electromagnets and permanent magnets in line.







Offset the permanent magnets or electromagnets so the attraction and release action is spread out over the gaps between the elements. A wheel like this with six elements would have an offset of fifteen degrees.










Example of the timing of the isolated top elements of four wheels; electromagnets inline, permanent magnets offset.




motor generator magnet magnetic piston




Example of three wheels with six elements on each wheel, permanent magnets inline, electromagnets offset.



motor generator magnet magnetic piston




Distance between wheels is exaggerated. There may be a benefit from having the permanent magnets close together, with the magnetic fields reinforcing the adjacent permanent magnets.

In the following, we shape the permanent magnets into wedges to maximize their space in the system.








Increase the number of elements on a wheel to minimize the amount of distance between the outer permanent magnets. This wheel has fifteen elements.








Notice what happens to the internal permanent magnets. They begin to over lap. Completely overlapping magnets would defeat the pulse aspect of the engine. Shape permanent magnets to form extrusions.







By combining a number of pieces with a harness or other attaching device, it forms a magnetic ring with exterior extrusions.







One may also create magnetic rings in the manufacturing process by aligning the magnetic fields properly.







There is a limit to how many elements we can use if we create a magnetic ring. On a single wheel, there has to be a gap large enough to utilize the pulse effect and large enough to have a reasonable sized magnetic field; experimentation will determine this.






motor generator magnet magnetic piston



To maximize a single wheel, one can create another circle of elements farther from the center. Here is a wheel with two concentric circles of permanent magnets. It has eighteen elements and uses a center ring.





This concept is to get a bunch of permanent magnets rotating, Rotating magnets are a great source of energy. Iit would be a waste not to utilize the moving magnets.

Create an Output Coil by flattening a coil.




The output coil is large enough to reach around the circumference of the rotating permanent magnets. Position the flattened output coil around the permanent magnets.









The following maximizes the use of output coils near the permanent magnets.

Arrange output coils around the permanent magnets on the inner part of the elements and around metal core of the electromagnets.












There may be an advantage to positioning the permanent magnets to create a stronger reaction within the output coils. One can add permanent magnet inserts to have opposition to all the permanent magnets around the middle output coil if there is a benefit.





Alternatively, it may be better to offset the permanent magnets to each other relative to the output coils to accentuate the magnetic field in the output coils. There is a special relationship between the middle output coil and the permanent magnets that run along each side where magnetic fields interact.

There may be a unique relationship where magnetic fields interact within an output coil. In the following the elements are offset and the opposing faces have the same polarity.


It may be that you want to have the opposing permanent magnets with opposite polarities slightly offset from each other to replicate the negative and positive poles of a complete magnetic field.

In the following the elements are offset, opposing faces have the different polarity.






In the following the elements are inline and the opposing faces have the different polarity.





Here two opposing magnetic fields interact with each other in an output coil.




The energy gained by manipulating the interaction of magnetic fields within a coil may be of significant value and comes with little loss. Create a wheel with just an array of Permanent magnets and spin them around an output coil. Experiment with different polarities and different offsets. Measure the current produced.





The outputs of the output coils have different polarities since they are affected by the different polarities of the permanent magnets. Time the system and/or manipulate the system output with circuits to create alternating current. Reversing the polarity of every other wheel would give equal amounts of positive and negative current.



There may be more of a benefit from having no unified center ring and just have two circles of complete elements using standard bearings. However, the ability to be able to use magnetic bearings is too advantageous not to explore. Experimentation will determine this.

Since there is a strong magnetic force applied to the shaft, one can position two permanent magnetic rings near the ends of the shaft that have the appropriate polarity to create a magnetic bearing. Instead of a ring, one could use a U shaped magnetic bearing to hold the shaft. Or, one could use three magnets situated to create a valley.





The following is a three wheel, six element system with offset pulse coils, output coils, magnetic ring at the center and magnetic bearings. The distance between the wheels and bearings have been expanded for clarity. The distance between the wheels and bearings should maximize any gain in efficiency. There may be an advantage to having the wheel permanent magnets close together, so the adjacent magnetic fields will add to the force of the adjacent magnets.


motor generator magnet magnetic piston



Although all that may be needed to start the system is a good push, one may need to attach a wiring harness between the coils, battery, electronics bundle and generator. And of course if the output coils are putting out enough, this would be a self contained generator.






The output coils can be created in many ways. A simple way would be to have a continuous winding where the second winding overlaps the first completed winding by continuing on top of and over the first complete winding.





On the other hand, It may be that the output coils have to have a gap between the start and finish of the coil to complete the coil function more efficiently. It may be of more advantage to have a number of individual coils.




There is a difference between length of output coil and number layers. number of winds per inch, thickness of coil wall and wire size that should be manipulated for advantage. The core and permanent magnets can be shaped to fit this system. Size and placement should be orientated to keep the forces in equilibrium; although there may be an advantage to having different size magnets and different strength of fields; experimentation determines this.

There may be an advantage to shaping the output coils to match the shape of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets.


Shaping Permanent Magnets


The core and permanent magnets can be shaped to fit this system. Size and placement should be orientated to keep the forces in equilibrium; although there may be an advantage to having different size magnets and different strength of fields; experimentation determines this.

For best efficiency, shape all the magnets to allow for this direction of movement. Since the upper magnet is farther from the center of the cage, we need to use different shape magnets for upper and lower magnets.






Surface field strength can be maximized by creating grooves in the permanent magnets. This may be no different from using bigger magnets, but to maximize the efficiency of the system this may be of benefit.

The depth of the groove should optimize maximum reaction between the surface fields of the magnets. It would seem that the groove should be enough to maximize the surface field interaction but still maximize the interaction with the electromagnets.






The permanent magnets can be shaped in any size and dimension to maximize the efficiency. The permanent magnets can be modified from very thick magnets to very thin magnetic plates. The cores can be shaped from thin at the middle to thick at the ends. The height, thickness and width and all other specifications of the all the permanent magnets, cores, coils, electronics, bearings, frequencies, revolutions per minute, wheels, supports and all parts of the system should be determined by the resulting efficiency. There may be an advantage from using an unequal number of permanent magnets compared to electromagnets.


Hysteresis:

From Advanced Lab, Mediawiki: http://www.advancedlab.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Hysteresis

"The typical but exaggerated hysteresis behavior of a ferromagnetic material is shown in the figure below, where the magnetic induction B is plotted vs. the magnetic field intensity H, which is directly proportional to the current in the surrounding coil. The horizontal axis could equally well be labeled ``I" instead of ``H". The "0" is the non-magnetized or demagnetized state (B=0, I=0) which can be reached by applying an alternating current and slowly reducing its amplitude to zero. As the current increases from the demagnetized state, the B value lags behind what one might expect and follows the curve to (a') and toward saturation at (a). With large variations in I, the behavior follows a major loop (abcdefa...); while for small variations in I, the behavior follows a minor loop (a'b'c'd'e'f'a'...) or (a'b'a'...) if the current I never becomes negative. Certain points of a hysteresis loop have names: Br is the remanent value at I = 0 after the material is saturated at (a.) Hc is the coercive field or the coercivity ( i.e. the H or I required to reduce B to zero)."


Hysteresis


Using electronic control this system can be operated between a' and b'. This would eliminate the hysteresis loss since it is operating above the loss at 0 to b'.

The above shows a detailed analysis of the hysteresis loop. First, they show the standard “S” hysteresis loop that is commonly found (a, b, c, d, e, f, a). The current starts a 0, increases to a, which is saturation of the material, then passes through b and c to reach d as an equal negative current is applied. It then passes through e and f to return to a, as another positive current is applied. This repeats in the loop.

This also shows a loop defined by a’ b’ c’ d’ e’ f’ a’. This is a loop that is of lesser value so as not to go to saturation. Notice how it is of an elliptical shape and not like an “S”. That is good.

But most important, notice the third loop – a’ b’ a’. As the article states “or (a'b'a'...) if the current "I" never becomes negative”

The loop moves perfectly from a’ to b’, exactly what this system needs. While the system is in operation, the a’ is the pulse point, where the pulse happens and the permanent magnets move away.; b’ is the attraction phase, where the permanent magnet is attracted to the non-magnetized core. If timed right, and a little assistance from electronics, this system can run bouncing back and forth between a’ and b’. This system can ride above the hysteresis loss, staying charged, between a' and b'.

While the system is running, the cores have to get to a point that replicates uncharged metal so the permanent magnets will still be attracted to the cores significantly. This is can be done by using permanent magnets as the cores of the electromagnets - equal in force to the difference between 0 and b’. Thereby shifting the 0 point relative to the permanent magnets and the cores up to b’, while at the same time maintaining the complete hysteresis loop relative to itself.

Electronics:

The distribution and timing of the pulses can be accomplished in any appropriate way. An electronics bundle can be constructed to gather the output and distribute it at the appropriate times to the appropriate places. The electrical bundle contains all electronics needed for control, timing, and distribution of electricity, and all other electrical and electronic needs.

Specific variations and changes in the application of the current to the electromagnets are used to maximize the output. For example, one can introduce an electric pulse in the form of a sine wave, saw tooth wave, stair step wave, square wave, etc. The waveform of the applied current maximizes the attraction and release related to the system. It may be necessary to hold this pulse waveform to strict values. A pulse at the end of the release phase of opposite polarity may be needed to flush the core fast enough to make the timing of the pulses viable. If indeed the system can be timed to use the natural dissipation in the core, this would be of an advantage. There is an increase in torque by applying a current more than just enough to release the magnetic grip.

A wiring harness connects all relevant parts with appropriate current. Connectors on an electrical bundle can connect to any peripheral devices for any use.

A mechanical brush assembly could be used to apply the pulse to the pulse coils at the appropriate times.

Mechanical:

The device can be attached to any connecting and/or assist devices such as gears, chains, pulleys, belts, flywheels, hydraulic systems, transmissions or any other connecting device or devices to maximize energy output for use in any application needing energy.

I would like to think this could be overunity and lead to free energy, I am not convinced of that, but this is interesting enough to look into.


Thanks for your time.

Please feel free to contact me.



koretech at hotmail.com

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